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Showing 56 results for Mousavi

Reza Aminpour, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (summer 1997)

In order to determine the effects of number of irrigations on stages of development, yield, and yield components of cumin, an experiment was conducted in 1993 - 94 growing season with a randomized complete block design and four replications. The location of the experiment was Isfahan University of Technology Research Station in Shervedan Field. The irrigation treatments were: I1- Irrigation after planting I2- Irrigation after planting and at the stage of full standing of plants I3- Irrigation after planting, full standing of plants, and anthesis and I4- Irrigation after planting, full standing of plants, anthesis, and beginning of grain filling stage. The stages of development (from emergence to anthesis) occurred simultaneously in all treatments. However, the water deficit in I1 and I2 caused the plants to reach their physiological maturity 5 days sooner than the other two treatments. The time intervals between anthesis and physiological maturity in I4 and I3 treatments were 12 days and 5 days longer than those in the other two treatments, respectively. The grain yield of I1 and I2 were approximately 60% of I3 and no significant difference was observed between the grain yields of I1 and I2 treatments, nor between I3 and I4 treatments. The grain yields in I3 and I4 treatments were about 1742 and 1800 Kg/ha, respectively. The number of umbels per plant, the most important grain yield component, was greater in I3 and I4 than the other two irrigation regimes, but the number of seeds per umbel and 1000-seed weight of I3 and I4 were lower than that in I1 and I2 treatments.
Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, Ahmad Mohammad-Zadeh, Ahmad Jalalian, Hossein Samadi-Boroujeni,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (fall 1997)

One of the most vital problems in the storage and utilization of surface waters for drinking, flood control, hydropower, and agricultural purposes is that of sedimentation in reservoirs and subsequent decline of dam lifetime. The useful lifetime of a dam is defined as the time necessary for approximately 80% of the volume of its initial capacity to be filled by sediments washed in by water. It is a function of the volume of the incoming sediments, specific weight of sediments, and reservoir trap efficiency. Trap efficiency depends on sediment characteristics, life, shape, and rule curves of the reservoir as well as on the capacity-inflow ratio. It is the purpose of the present study to calculate sediment trap efficiency of small dams and also to determine the relationship(s) among the effective parameters in the Chaharmahal and Bakhtiary region. For our purposes, 14 small earth dams (with heights of less than 15 m and capacities of about 1 MCM) were selected around Shahrekord and Borougen. Since no data were available on the erosion and sedimentation for these dams, the MPSIAC empirical model was used to estimate the incoming sediment to the dams' reservoirs. The model considers nine factors effective on erosion and sediment production in each watershed. These factors were analyzed for the watershed of each dam under study and the annual sediment yield was calculated. The amount of sediments retained in the reservoirs as a result of the working life of the dams was estimated by reservoir surveying. The trap efficiency was calculated for all the reservoirs under study. The results obtained revealed that the trap efficiencies for these small dams ranged from 10.4 to 68.9%. New curves were developed and suggested for the trap efficiency of small dams based on these results.
Mohammad Reza Yazdani, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (fall 1997)

Water requirements of paddy fields in the Gilan Province are provided for by a large irrigation network including Sepidrud reservoir dam, Tarik diversion dam, Fumanat network, Sangar diversion dam, and Sangar right and left canals. Because of the deposition of sediments in the Sepidrud reservoir, its capacity has been reduced profoundly. To overcome this problem, sediments are flushed in the second half of each year. The sediments coming from erodible surfaces of the Sepidrud watershed area out flowing from the dam in the spring, and the deposited sediments in the Sepidrud river in the second half of each year are a great hazard for the irrigation network. The objective of this research is to study the effect of the sediments on Sepidrud network. In this research, sediment data from the hydrometric station near Sepidrud dam were analyzed. Sediment samples were collected by a hand sampler (type DH-48) from Tarik and Sangar diversion dams, upper and lower ends of Sangar desilting basin, BP4 and SP3 canals, and field ditches and drains. Water discharge was measured by a current meter. Deposited materials in irrigation structures were sampled for grading. The results from this study indicate that the Sepidrud river and Tarik diversion dam deposit sediments at low discharges, but at high river discharges these sediments were found to he erodible. Average efficiencies of left and right desilting basins of Sangar diversion dam were 15.3% and 11.2%, respectively. The area located in Fumanat section, which receives water from Tarik diversion dam, requires desilting structures. The irrigation structures of the network are in danger of sediments. The main and the secondary canals, compared with 3rd and 4th order canals, have less settled sediments in them.
Sayed Farhad Mousavi, Mohammad Nekoei-Meher, Mohammad Mahdavi,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (summer 1998)

As unit hydrograph is an important item in flood estimation of the rivers and since flood hydrograph and simultaneous rainfall hyetograph is needed to derive a unit hydrograph, hydrologists recommend synthetic unit hydrographs for areas lacking these hydrometeorological data. A research was conducted in the Zayandehrud-dam watershed (Pelasjan sub-basin) to test the efficiency of synthetic unit hydrographs (Snyder, SCS, and Triangular methods) in hydrological evaluations. For the purposes of this study, natural and synthetic unit hydrographs were determined and compared, using all morphologic, hydrometric and rainfall data. The results showed that Triangular and SCS methods fit natural unit hydrographs better than Snyder method does, but peak instantaneous flow is estimated to be higher than the observed flow. So, the constant 2.083 in peak flow equation is recommended to be changed to 1.74 in this watershed. The Snyder method predicts good peak flows, compared with the other two methods. Generally, it is concluded that Triangular, SCS, and Snyder methods are ranked 1 to 3 for determination of synthetic unit hydrographs in this watershed.
Behrouz Mostafazadeh, Sayed-Farhad Mousavi, Mohammad Hossain Sharif-Bayanolhagh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (fall 1998)

To determine the effects of field slope, emitter discharge, irrigation water volume and soil texture on soil moisture profile and soil surface wetted shape from a point source, field data were collected on three different soil types, three emitter discharges (4, 8, and 12 lph), four slopes (0, 2, 5, and 10%), and five irrigation water volumes (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 liters) with three replications. The results showed that the surface-wetted area increases as the emitter discharge increases. The surface-wetted area decreased with a corresponding increase in emitter discharge in experimental fields with light-textured soils. In experimental fields with heavy textured soils and slopes greater than 5%, the changes in surface-wetted area due to the emitter discharge increases, were higher compared to slopes of less than 5%. Since, a higher emitter discharge would result in higher surface-wetted area, the results showed that for an equal volume of irrigation water, the soil moisture profile was deeper for lower emitter discharge. In general, the volume of wetted zone was higher for greater emitter discharges. It was found that as the volume of irrigation water increased, the volume of wetted zone would increase correspondingly. This effect is more prominent than that of emitter discharge. In general, the depth of wetting front was lower and the wetted surface area was greater for heavy textured soils as compared to the light textured soils. The wetted-surface area and the shape of wetting front in the direction of slope were affected by the soil infiltration, emitter discharge and volume of irrigation water where these effects were more critical in higher sloping lands.
Sayed Farhad Mousavi, Behrouz Mostafazadeh, Shokrollah Absalan,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (winter 1999)

This study aims to evaluate the present management of border irrigation systems applied to wheat, alfalfa and sugar-beet farms in Boyer-Ahmad and Gachsaran cities in Kohgiloyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province. Experimental farms included 8 alfalfa farms, 5 wheat farms and 5 sugar-beet farms. The experiments were conducted at different growth stages of plants and customary borders with prevalent dimensions, slopes, and management practices. The relationship between management allowable deficit, moisture deficit before irrigation, and infiltrated depth indicated that in most cases either “deficit irrigation” or “stress irrigation” had been applied. This type of irrigation has positive effects on water use but negative effects on supply of required soil moisture for plants. In the first to third irrigations, measured application efficiencies ranged from 40.8% to 100%, 52.2% to 100%, and 61.1% to 100%, respectively. Graphs of advance, recession, and ideal recession showed the effects of border slope and length on inflow cut time and uniformity of water distribution. Water infiltration curves showed the amount of deficit irrigation. The results showed that weak irrigation management is the result of three parameters: lack of knowledge on the part of farmers about soil moisture conditions and correct time for irrigation, weak irrigation scheduling, as well as an imbalance between available water supply and irrigation requirements which leads to wasting water and reduced irrigation efficiency.
Sayed Farhad Mousavi, Jafar Jamshidnezhad-Anbarany, Sayed Saeid Eslamian, Nasser Rostam-Afshar,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (summer 1999)

Estimation of flood flow rate represents a method of preventing damages associated with this natural phenomenon. This estimation is one basis in the design of various hydraulic structures, dam spillways, watershed management and flood control. The maximum flow rate of floods is determined by methods such as Creager, Jarvis-Meyer, Cypress-Creek, and rational method. Rational-probability method is an alternative to estimate peak flood rates, and is expressed as:

 Q(y) = F. C(y). I(tc.y).A

 where Q is maximum flood flow rate (m3/sec) y is the return period (year) C(y) is runoff coefficient with a return period of y A is watershed area (km2) I is rainfall intensity (mm/hr) for a specified return period equal to time of concentration of the watershed and F is the conversion factor equal to 0.278 when the above units are used. The basic concept of this method is the same as that in the rational method except that the return period is also included in the equation. Usually, runoff coefficient, C(y), is determined empirically from tables cited in the literature (e.g., Chow et al., 1988). In the present research, data from 18 hydrometry and 6 rainfall-recording stations (located in Caspian - Sea watershed) were analysed using TR software. The Caspian - Sea watershed (which covers eastern and centeral parts of Iran's No. 1 main watershed) has the sub-basins of Atrak, Tadjan, Chalus, Sardabrood, Siahrood, Gorganrood, Safarood, Kesilian, Babolrood and Neka. Runoff coefficients with return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years were determined for these sub-basins and iso-coefficient curves were plotted. The results showed that computed runoff coefficients were less than the values given in the literature because they are determined from observed flow rate and rainfall intensity in each catchment. It was also shown that runoff coefficient increased with increasing return periods. Application of the computed runoff coefficients in three sub-basins of the area resulted in more accurate estimations of maximum flood rate than when the values for these coefficients cited in the literature were applied.

M. Mahlooji, S.f. Mousavi, M. Karimi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (spring 2000)

A study was conducted to determine irrigation scheduling of pinto bean and to evaluate the effect of its planting date. A split-plot with complete randomized block design with four replications was used at Isfahan University of Technology Research Station in Shervedan-Falavarjan, The main plots were three irrigation regimes of T1 to T3 (irrigation after 50±3, 70±3 and 90±3 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively) and the sub-plots were two planting dates of May 28 and June 28.

The results showed that delayed planting from May to June caused earlier flowering, physiological maturity and reduction of 29.6% in grain yield. Grain yield in T1 to T3 treatments were 3585.1, 3510.5 and 1925.8 kg/ha, respectively. The difference between grain yields of T1 and T2 with T3 treatments were significant at 1% probability level. Biological yields at May 28 and June 28 planting dates were 8257.1 and 5535 kg/ha, respectively, which were significantly different. There was no significant difference between biological yields of T1 and T2 treatments. Number of pods per square meter was the most important component of grain yield and 85% of grain yield difference was due to this part. Harvest index was affected by irrigation treatment and planting date. Mean harvest indices for T1 to T3 treatments were 45.5, 46.1 and 37%, respectively, and 42.8% and 44.9% for the two planting dates. Water use efficiencies for grain yield in T1 to T3 treatments were 0.557, 0.556 and 0.329 kg/m3, respectively. Generally, treatment T2 was shown to be the best irrigation regime.

M. Kalbasi, S.f. Mousavi,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (fall 2000)

Life in central Iran depends on the Zayandehrood river, making the preservation of its quality important. Salinization and pollution of the flow as a result of different organic and inorganic pollutants create serious threats to the environment and to the agricultural activities in the region. Although the role of the main drains discharged into the Zayandehrood in changing its quality is well known, little information is available on the volume and quality of the discharged drains. The purpose of this research was to study the quantity and quality of three main drains (Zoab-Ahan, Rudasht and Segzi) discharging into the Zayandehrood, Monthly samples were taken from each drain and their chemical properties were measured in 1998. The discharge rates were also measured simultaneously at sections near the discharge points.

The results showed that all three drains were alkaline and, therefore, had no negative effects on the pH of the river flow. Mean annual EC of Zoab-Ahan, Rudasht and Segzi drains were 5.56, 27.18 and 42.41 dS/m, respectively, and the salt loads discharged into the river by these drains were 39258.4, 37672.9 and 259781.2 ton/year, respectively. Annual mean N concentrations were 4.49, 3.92 and 4.18 mg/L and annual mean P concentrations were 0.26, 0.16 and 0.12 mg/L in the drains, respectively. The most important effect of the drains on the Zayandehrood was salinization, especially in the lower parts of the river. The increase in soluble salt contents of the river after Segzi drain discharge was so high that it made the water thereafter unusable for any purpose.

D. Qujaq, S.e. Mousavi,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (spring 2002)

The objective of this investigation is to measure pectinesterase activity by a simple method. The assay is done at 25°C. Oranges were obtained at a local supermarket in winter. They were peeled and 5 gr sections of the peeled tissue were homogenized in 10% NaCl and 0.5 M phosphate buffer in a homogenizer. The homogenates were centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 20 min. The supernatants were collected, their pH levels were raised to 7.25 using NaOH and the reaction was monitored at 485 nm in a spectrophotometer. The activity of pectinesterase was expressed as micromoles of methanol released per minute.

The results show that this method is reliable, sensitive, and capable of measuring pectinesterase activity of as low as 0.05 unit. The assay method proposed is a very useful analytical tool for the determination of the activities of pectinesterase.

M. Shabanpour-Shahrestani, M. Afyuni, S. F. Mousavi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (winter 2003)

The objective of this research was to evaluate bromide leaching in a field under corn, wheat and alfalfa. Potassium bromide (300 kg/ha) was uniformly applied and 15 mm of water was sprinkled over the plots in the first and second years. Plots were leached 8 times during the first year and 9 times in the second year (each time with 100 mm of water). Soil samples were collected at 0-30, 30-60, 60-90 and 90-120 cm depths two days after each leaching practice. Bromide concentration in soil samples was measured using an ion selective electrode. Moisture content in each plot was measured using a neutron meter to a depth of 120 cm and after calculation of evaporation from soil surface, the net water applied was determined. CXTFIT software and Regional Stochastic Model (RSM) were used to simulate leaching under field conditions. The results showed that flow velocity and dispersivity of treatmens were not significantly different from the control in the first year, indicating that treatments had no effect on preferential flow. Control treatments were not significantly different in the first and second years. In the second year, flow velocity in wheat, corn and alfalfa treatments were 1.54, 1.86 and 2.21 times higher than flow velocity in the control, respectively. Dispersivity in alfalfa and corn treatments were 4.30 and 5.30 times higher as compared to the control. The increase in flow velocity and dispersivity is caused by an increase of preferential flow in the second year. The root channels remaining in soil at the end of the first year may also have increased preferential flow. After adding 25 cm of water, 30% of bromide leached from the top 50 cm soil in all plots in the first year and control plots in the second year but the values in the second year were 47, 67 and 70% of bromide leaching from the top 50 cm soil in wheat, corn and alfalfa plots, respectively.
M. Jalali Javaran, H. Hashemzadeh, A. Mousavi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (summer 2004)

Analysis of transgenic plants is very important in gene transfer programs. In this research, the second generation (T1) of transgenic brassica napus which was transformed by antisense of Glutamine synthetase (GS) gene was studied from the view of total soluble protein content of leaf, total chlorophyll and protein patterns (SDS-PAGE) using seeds of Brassica napus .Protein concentration was determined by a calorimetric method described by Bradford method. Chlorophyll (a, b) and carotenoid contents were determined by spectrophotometry. The total soluble protein content of Brassica napus leaves increased from YG stage, reached a maximum level during MG2 and, after this, decreased with the progress of SS stage. Comparison of the total soluble protein between different treatments showed the highest level in the A2 plant and the least in the A6 plant. Comparisons with chlorophyll a and b were not significant between different treatments, but different stages showed significant differences with maximum and minimum levels obtained in the MG1 and SS, respectively. Protein patterns were also studied using SDS-PAGE method. No new band was recognized in the MG1 stage, but the density of some protein patterns was shown in YG and MG2 stages. In YG stage, differences were seen among the A5, A3, A4 and A6 with W.T on 41 KDa weighty position and also between the A1 and A2 with W.T treatment on 23/6 KDa. Considering the molecular weight GS1 subunit of glutamine synthetase (41 KDa) and the similar conditions in growth, protein extraction and macro molecular analysis in transgenic and control plants, we can tell that the difference shown in transgenic plants are probably due to the effect of the antisense of glutamine synthesis gene in this plant.
A. Jafari Malekabadi, M. Afyuni, S. F. Mousavi, A. Khosravi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (fall 2004)

In recent decades, the use of nitrogen fertilizers has increased irrespective of their effects on soil properties, agricultural products and, particularly, on environmental pollution. Nitrate easily leaches from soils into groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine temporal and spatial nitrate concentrations in groundwater in agricultural, industrial and urban regions in some parts of Isfahan Province. Water samples were collected monthly from 75 agricultural, industrial, and urban wells of Isfahan, Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Natanz and Kashan during January-May 2001. The results indicated that NO3-N concentrations in most of the regions studied were higher than the standard level (10 mg/l) and nitrate pollution must be reckoned among the most serious problems of sustainable agriculture and exploitation of groundwater resources. Average NO3-N concentration in different wells ranged from 1.03 to 50.78 mg/l (4.64 to 228.5 mg/l as nitrate). The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of Najaf-abad, Shahreza, Isfahan and Natanz-Kashan was 17.56, 14.6, 16.04, and 8.24 mg/l and 95.5, 100, 84 and 33.3 % of total wells in these regions had nitrate concentrations above the standard level, respectively. Maximum NO3-N concentration was detected in the agricultural region south of Najaf-abad (64.6 mg/l). Nitrate pollution in most of the sampling areas was mainly linked to agricultural activities. The average NO3-N concentration in groundwater of all agricultural, industrial, and urban regions, except for urban regions of Natanz and Kashan, were above the standard level. Generally, nitrate concentration level in groundwater increased with time and was maximum in March and April.
A. Nasr Esfahani, A. Mousavi Bak,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (fall 2004)

The black dot disease of potato is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum coccodes (syn. C. atramentarium) that produces accervuli on infected underground plant parts which appear as black dots. The disease appears at the flowering stage and develops up to the season end. The survey on black dot disease of potato in two successive years indicated that the infection percentage is 39.86 in Feraydan (Isfahan), one of the most important potato production regions in Iran. Studies on usual cropping patterns with, potato including, wheat alfa-alfa, barley and fallow showed that in terms of disease infection, one year rotation with fallow reduced the disease severity almost to half compared with control and other cropping patterns. Biological seed and soil treatment, with Trichoderma harzianum in various spores density reduced the disease in various degrees significantly and increased the potato plant growth factors including the number of stems, foliage fresh and dry weights, and also the yields in cases of spore applications, depending upon the type and application dosage. Comparative susceptibility assessments of 24 commercial potato varieties to the black dot disease indicated that the variety Desiree was the least concerned in terms of infection, followed by Scort ,Casser, Casmos, Carlita and Moren , where as Marijke, Cosima and Monalisa were highly infected in comparison to other tested verities and the rests of varieties were scored within these two ranges.
A. Yamchi, F. Rastgar Jazii, C. Ghobadi, A. Mousavi, A. A. Karkhanehee,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (winter 2005)

Proline as a key osmoregulating solute in plants plays an overriding role in osmotic pressure adjustment of the cell under water stress conditions. In plant, a bifunctional enzyme delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (p5cs) promotes and directs proline synthesis during drought stress conditions. The activity of this enzyme is strongly induced to increase proline concentration within the cell to prevent the impact of water deficit. In this study, the sequence coded for p5cs enzyme under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was cloned into a plasmid containing gus and nptII genes. The construct pBI121-p5cs was then transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (pGV3101) and used for producing transgenic tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) plants. The amplification of a 765 bp band within p5cs gene from transferred plants and forming deep blue color in leaf tissues of the explants indicated the successful introduction of p5cs construct into nuclear genome of tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The two-month old plants growing under normal condition besides the five-day seedlings under drought stress were subjected to determination of proline concentration. Comparison of P5cs product levels between control and water tolerated plants indicated an increase of proline of about 96.91 to 1330.891 mg/g and of 204.454 to 2039.77 mg/g in plants under normal irrigation and under drought stress, conditions respectively. The significant difference between the levels of proline product in control and transgenic plants under different growing conditions demonstrated the expression of targeted gene (p5cs) in engineered tobacco plants that may pave the way to overcome the water stress problem in agronomically useful crops.
S. M. A. Razavi, S. A. Mortazavi, S. M. Mousavi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (summer 2006)

In this study, the effect of transmembrane pressure (TMP) on flux decline and protein rejection due to concentration polarization and fouling (adsorption) resistances during ultrafiltration of reconstituted skimmilk was investigated. UF experiments were carried out using a pilot plant unit equipped with spiral wound module and polysulfonamide UF membrane. A three-stage experimental strategy based on a resistance-in-series model (boundary layer-adsorption) was used to seperately determine the hydraulic membrane resistance, concentration polarization and fouling resistances. The results showed that increasing TMP had no effect on initial flux reduction (Jrt), but flux decline in each TMP was greatly due to concentration polarization, and fouling has a small role in flux decline, whereas dynamic response of flux decline proved that increasing Jrt during operation is due to fouling. The influence of TMP on resistances showed that total hydraulic resistance and reversible fouling resistance are increased with increasing TMP, but intrinsic membrane resistance and irreversible fouling resistance did not change. Increasing the total hydraulic resistance with time resulted in increasing both reversible and irreversible fouling resistances. Increasing TMP or operation time had no significant effect on protein rejection, but only led to an increase about 1-4 percent.
M. Heidarour, S. F. Mousavi, A. R. Roushani Zarmehri,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (fall 2006)

Because of slight variation of the static head due to discharge fluctuations, the labyrinth weirs are considered to be economical structures for flood control and water level regulation in irrigation networks, as compared to other devices. Labyrinth weirs are composed of folded sections observed as trapezoidal and triangular in plan view. In this study, rectangular and U-shaped labyrinth weirs were investigated. Experiments were conducted on 15 labyrinth weir models. The models included eight rectangular labyrinth models and six U-shaped labyrinth models with different heights and lengths, and one linear model. All the experiments were performed in a horizontal rectangular flume, 7 m long, 0.32 m wide and 0.35 m high. The results indicated that for all the models, discharge coefficient increased sharply with an increase in Ht/P and attained a maximum value. This coefficient then decreased smoothly with a further increase in Ht/P. Increasing height of weirs increased the discharge coefficient for both rectangular and U-shaped weirs. The results also showed that increasing the length parallel to the flow direction decreased and increasing the length perpendicular to the flow direction increased the discharge coefficient. Generally, the discharge coefficient for rectangular weir was less than that of the U-shaped weir. The obtained results compared with those of Tullis et al. (1995) showed that discharge coefficient for U-shaped weir is more and for rectangular weir is less than that of the trapezoidal weir for angle of the side legs of 8 and 12 degrees.
M. R. Yazdani, M. Ghodsi, S. F. Mousavi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

Cultivation of a second crop in paddy fields of Guilan province is a strategy for optimum use of land, supporting family economy and increasing oil-seed production. However, this is impeded under high rainfall and waterlogging conditions. To enhance second-crop cultivation in paddy fields, surface drainage is inevitable. The surface drainage practices should be performed with minimum costs, least time span and least variations of the land. In the present research, longitudinal surface drains were constructed with a spacing of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 m (depth of 20 cm), with and without 1-m lateral drains (depth of 10 cm) in Rice Research Institute, Rasht, Iran. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications. Canola (Brassica napa), variety PF, was cultivated as a second crop after rice. The results showed that the effects of drain spacing on seed yield, days to maturity, number of plants per m2, and also the effects of lateral drainage on seed yield, plant height, residual N, days to maturity, and number of plants per m2 are significant (P<0.01). Highest yield (2493 kg/ha) was obtained from longitudinal drains 4 m apart, with lateral drainage drain spacing of 6 and 2 m had acceptable yields, too (2241 and 1817 kg/ha, respectively). For treatments without lateral drainage, 2-m drain spacing had the highest yield (1324 kg/ha). Considering all the expenses for drainage construction, it was found that net benefit of longitudinal drain spacing of 4 and 6 m was twice the costs. Since the rainfall in Nov., Dec., and Jan., 2000, was higher than the 20-year average rainfall of the same months, it was concluded that the results of this experiment may be recommended in the years with a rainfall less than the year 2000.
Gh. Sayyad, M. Afyuni, S. F. Mousavi,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

Accumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in cultivated soils is an important environmental problem in many parts of the world. In recent years, HM leaching through preferential paths and also in the form of metal-organic acids complexes has received much attention. For this reason, the effects of plants on creating preferential flow through the soil is important. The objective of this study was to assess the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a calcareous soil (Typic Haplocalcids) planted with safflower (Carthamus tinctorious). The study was conducted on 12 undisturbed soil columns (22.5 cm in diameter and 50 cm in depth) in greenhouse. The top 10 cm of soil in half of the columns were contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn at the rates of 19.5, 750, 150 and 1400 kg ha-1, respectively. Half of the contaminated and uncontaminated columns were planted with safflower at a rate of 20 seeds m-2. Leachate was collected continuously and analyzed for these four heavy metals. After the crop harvest, soil samples were taken at 10 cm intervals and analyzed for DTPA-extractable and water-soluble HMs concentration. Results showed that heavy metal concentrations (DTPA and soluble) of the subsoil in planted columns were more than in fallow columns. The DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in contaminated planted columns were 3.3-, 1.5- and 1.5-times more than in contaminated fallow columns, respectively. The water-soluble Cd, Cu and Zn in planted treatments increased 2.4, 1.2- and 1.1 times more than the fallow treatment. Lead concentrations in both planted and fallow treatments were similar. Metal uptake by safflower increased such that Cd and Zn uptake was more than Cu and Pb. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the leachate of planted columns increased 32.0-, 2.5-, 6.0- and 2.7- time more than the uncontaminated planted columns. In summary, although topsoil contamination increased metal uptake by safflower, however the presence of safflower increased DTPA-extractable and also soluble metal concentrations in the soil profile and therefore enhanced metal mobility. The order of metal mobility was Cd > Zn >Cu >Pb.
M. Mousavi, M. Chizari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (spring 2007)

Potatoes are the third most important food crop in Iran. But fluctuations in the production of potato have made imbalances in supply and demand. Lack of appropriate planning for cultivation and marketing operation and farmers’ little knowledge of marketing provides a ground for uncertainty about marketing. To compete successfully in markets, knowledge on marketing is necessary. Succeeding in markets is possible by conducting the marketing educational programs. The broad objective of most marketing educational programs is to help producers modify production and marketing. The first stage in planning of marketing programs is to determine the educational needs. Therefore, needs assessment before planning and conducting to programs is necessary. In this study the educational needs of potato farmers regarding marketing have been considered. The descriptive- correlational research methodology was used in this study. The target population included potato farmers from Ajabshir Township, East Azerbaijan Province. A random sample of 110 potato farmers was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method for completing the questionnaires. Research results indicated that respondents’ technical knowledge in marketing is low especially in pricing and marketing. The most important educational needs of respondents were marketing and pre-harvest activities. The independent variables such as age, literacy rate, yield rate, experience of potato farming and size of potato farms did not have any significant relationship with educational needs. Based on respondents’ opinions, the best educational method was meeting agents on farm and conducting the educational courses.

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